Laboratory for Innovation and Development in Antennas, Radars and Electromagnetics

Welcome to iDARE Laboratory, ECE, IISc!

Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Concepts and Applications (E8 304)

  • Instructor: Dr. Debdeep Sarkar, ECE, IISc
    Course-type: Elective (August Term)
    Credits: 3:0
    Timing and Venue: 3:30-5:00 PM on Tuesday and Thursday (Venue: EC 1.07)

    Tentative Syllabus:

    1. Background: General Historical perspective and idea of Metamaterials (MTMs), Maxwell's Equations and EM Boundary Conditions, Formulation and Solution of Wave-equation, Phasor Concepts, Plane-wave propagation in simple medium, Dispersive model for the dielectric permittivity, Phase velocity and group velocity.

    2. Spatial Metamaterials: Metamaterials and homogenization procedure, Ionospheric Plasma, Metals and plasmons at optical frequencies, Wire mesh structures as low frequency plasmas, Diamagnetism in a stack of metallic cylinders, Split-ring resonator media, Media with negative permittivity and permeability: theory and properties, Origins of negative refraction and other properties, Design of Superlenses for optics.

    3. Transmission Line Metamaterials: Ideal Homogeneous CRLH TLs (Composite Right-Left Handed Transmission Lines), LC Network Implementation and distributed 1D CRLH Structures, Conversion from Transmission Line to constitutive Parameters, Dual-band and enhanced band guided wave components, Negative and Zeroth-Order Resonators, Backfire-to-Endfire (BE) Leaky-Wave (LW) Antennas and their Electronic Scanning.

    4. Meta-surface concepts: Artificial High-Impedance Surface design, EBG (Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures) Gain-enhancement in antennas using MTM superstrates, Design of FSS Radomes for EMI Shielding and Absorbers, Beam-steering using Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces (IRS).

    5. General Space-Time Metamaterials: Analytical approach for EM wave propagation in Time-varying medium, FDTD analysis of medium with sinusoidal and step-periodically varying permittivity, Time-varying transmission line realization, Structures with simultaneous variation of permittivity in space and time, Applications in parametric amplifiers and non-reciprocal antenna system design.

    Relevance of the Course:

    Electromagnetic metamaterials find potential applications in advanced communication, defense and energy sectors, by leading to innovative designs of filters, sensors, radomes/shields, antennas, intelligent reflectors, energy harvesting structures, as well as superlenses. The subject of electromagnetic metamaterials is an interdisciplinary one, involving fields as circuit design, electromagnetics, classical optics, solid state physics, microwave / antenna engineering and material sciences. Besides the conventional spatial metamaterials, recently there has been emphasis on using time-modulation to realize more exotic EM properties.

    In this course, emphasis will be provided on disseminating the underlying electromagnetic concepts of metamaterials, by judicious use of numerical problems and MATLAB simulation exercises.

    Grading Policy:

    (a) Home Assignments: 30%
    (b) Mid-term: 20%
    (c) End-term/Course Project: 50%

    Pre-requisites: Presence of preliminary knowledge about vectors, coordinate transform, partial differential equations, circuit theory and transmission lines would be great. However, most of these topics will be reviewed before introducing any new topic in the class.


    I. D. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Pearson Education Asia Ltd, Second Edition, 2006.
    II. S. A. Ramakrishna and T. M. Grzegorczyk, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group and SPIE Press, 2009.
    III. G. V. Eleftheriades and K. G. Balmain, Negative Refraction Metamaterials: Fundamental Principles and Applications, Copyright: IEEE, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005.
    IV. C. Caloz and T. Itoh, Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications, The Engineering Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2006.
    V. D. Sarkar, FDTD Analysis of Guided Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Time Modulated Dielectric Medium, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Springer Verlag, Singapore, 2022. (ISBN-13: 978-9811916298).